Temperature:

The month of November was very cold overall, with an average temperature in peninsular Spain of 8.2 ºC, which is 1.2 ºC below the average for this month (reference period: 1981-2010). This was the tenth coldest November since the beginning of the series in 1961, and the fourth coldest of the 21st century, behind November 2008, 2001 and 2010. This was also the case in the Rioja region, with even colder temperatures in the mountainous area of the Sierra de la Demanda, which represents its south-western boundary.

Rainfall:

The month of November was dry in terms of rainfall, with an average rainfall value over peninsular Spain of 56 mm, a value that represents 71 % of the normal value for the month (reference period: 1981-2010). This was the seventeenth driest November since the beginning of the series in 1961, and the seventh in the 21st century. However, it was wet, and even very wet, in the northern part of Spain, which includes the Rioja region, especially in the areas closest to the Ebro (between 125% and 175% of the normal value for the month). Naturally, the Ebro basin received all this increased rainfall.

Insolation and other variables:

The accumulated insolation throughout the month of November was above normal values (reference period 1981-2010) in a large part of the Peninsula. However, the Rioja region remained within the average, with an increase in insolation of around 10% in the eastern area. There were few and insignificant episodes of strong wind.

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